GENERAL ORGANIZATION OF THE BODY
Anatomical nomenclature. Terms of position, direction and relationship. Divisions of the body according to the regions and organ systems.
General outline of the nervous system. General disposition of the white and grey matter. General disposition of the meninges. General plan of the somatic and autonomic nervous systems, dermatomes and myotomes.
Blood-vascular system with general outline of the circulation: systemic and pulmonary circuits, portal system and foetal circulation.
Salient features of the skull, cranial fossae and vertebral column.
Concept of the cell as the structural, functional and genetic unit of the body. Composition of protoplasm. Division into cytoplasm and nucleus. Role of macromolecules in the structural organization of the cell. Cell components, their role in cell function. Diversity of cell morphology as related to the varied functional demands.Physical activities of the living cell, intracellular movements,cellular locomotion, endocytosis and exocytosis. Cell cycle andcell division. DNA and RNA structure and protein synthesis.Basic concepts of the principles of transport through cell membrane, membrane potential and action potential.
The muscular tissue
Structural and functional differences between the smooth, skeletal and cardiac muscles. Fine structure of skeletal and cardiac muscle fibres, and its relationship to the mechanism of contraction. Specialized conducting tissue of the heart.
The neural tissue
The neuron, morphology of the perikaryon and its processes.Coverings of the axons in the peripheral nerves and the central nervous system. Types of neuralgia and their functions. Process of myelination in the peripheral nerves and the central nervous system. Axon terminals and synapses. Nerve fibre degeneration and regeneration.
Definition of immunity. Immune system and its functions.Morphology of lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophages.Responses of T and B lymphocytes to antigens. Overview of the lymphocyte circulation. General concept of lymphocyte functions,immunoglobulins, classes of immunoglobulins and their basic structure. General concept of the complement system. Antigen-antibody reactions and their effects. Types of hypersensitivity reactions. Immunodeficiency disorders. Autoimmunity,transplantation of tissues (organs) and their rejections. H.L.A. (human leukocyte antigen) system.
Structure of large, medium and small arteries and veins, and its physiological implications. Various types of capillaries and sinusoids. Structural basis of transvascular exchanges. General structural features of atria, ventricles, conducting tissues, cardiac skeleton and valves of the heart, and their relationship to cardiac function. Blood supply of the heart.
Functions, amount, distribution and factors governing distribution and principles of measurement. Composition of intracellular and extracellular fluid. Regulation and disturbance of water and electrolyte balance. Regulation and disturbance of the pH of blood and acid-base balance. The physico-chemical principles of buffer solution, osmosis, osmotic pressure, colloids, crystalloidsand Donnan equilibrium, oxidation and reduction.
Definition of thrombosis and thrombus. Pathogenesis of thrombosis.Types of thrombosis, arterial, venous, ante-mortem and post-mortem.Fate of thrombi and effects of thrombosis. Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC).
Basic functions of the nervous system.
Sensory: sense organs and receptors, somatic sensation detection and transmission.
Motor: initiation and control of voluntary movements, control of muscle tone, posture and equilibrium.
Reflexes: monosynaptic stretch reflexes, polysynaptic withdrawal reflexes, general characters of reflexes.
Autonomic nervous system: overall functions of sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems and autonomic reflex activity.
External morphology, meninges and blood supply of the spinal cord. Relationship of the “segments” to vertebrae at different ages. Internal structure of the spinal cord, organization of the grey and white matter. Variations in the structure of the grey matter at different levels and location of the important nuclei.Location of ascending and descending tracts, and their functions.Effects of injury or disease. Spinal nerves: types and functions of a typical nerve, cervical plexus, brachial plexus, thoracic nerves, lumbar plexus, sacral and coccygeal plexuses.
Subdivisions of the brain. Ventricular system of the brain andcirculation of cerebrospinal fluid. Blood supply of the brain.Meninges of the brain, parts of the cranial dura and formation and drainage of dural sinuses. Functions of the cranial nerves.
Gross organization of the cortex, location of motor and sensory cortical “areas”. Functions of various regions. Blood supply.Internal capsule, location, fibre content and blood supply.
Afferent and efferent connections and their functional correlations.
Nuclear groups, afferent and efferent connections and their functional correlations.
Subdivisions, connections and functions and effects of lesions.
Core structures of the limbic system. Other nuclei and pathways associated with the limbic system. Functions of thalamus, hypothalamus and the limbic system.
Functional aspects of the nervous system
Sensory activity: peripheral sensory receptors, sensory pathways, physiology of pain and disorders of sensations.
Motor activity: corticospinal and extracorticospinal pathways, cerebellum and vestibular system. Motor neurons and motor units. Disorders of motor activity, neuromuscular junction.Muscle and nerve physiology.
Reflex activity: spinal reflexes and reflex regulation of movements and posture, bulbo-pontine control of posture andorientation in space. Classification of reflexes and characteristics of reflex action.
Autonomic activity: organization of autonomic nervous system, functions and higher control.
Electroencephalogram and its uses. Sleep, types, physiological changes during sleep. Speech mechanism and its disorders.Cerebrospinal fluid, cerebral circulation, metabolism and functions. Blood brain and blood CSF barriers. Regulation of body temperature and its disturbances.
Functional aspects of GIT. Motility of GIT: mastication,swallowing, gastric motility, intestinal motility and gall bladder motility. Secretory activity of GIT: formation, composition, function and control of saliva, gastric, pancreatic, bile and intestinal secretions. GIT hormones controlling activities of GIT.Functions of stomach, pancreas, gall bladder and liver. Hepatic failure and jaundice. Liver function tests with interpretation.
Requisites of an adequate diet. Role of carbohydrates, fats, proteins, minerals, vitamins and water in diet.
Sources of calcium, phosphorous, iron, iodine, fluorine, magnesium and manganese. Trace elements and their clinical importance. Absorption and factors required for it. Functions and fate.
Control of carbohydrate metabolism and its disturbance.Regulation of blood glucose level. Glucose tolerance test.Glycogenesis, glycolysis, gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis, processes with the steps involved and effects of hormones. Citric acid cycle, steps involved, its significance and the common final metabolic pathway. Hexose monophosphate shunt: mechanism and significance.
Classification of simple, derived and compound lipids. Dietary sources. Digestion, absorption, utilization and control. Fatty acid oxidation with steps involved. Ketogenesis and its significance.Lipotropic factors and their actions. Lipoproteins, types and importance.
Proteins and Amino acids
Classification and dietary sources of proteins.
Digestion, absorption, utilization and control. Fate of the amino acids. Urea formation with steps involved.
Essential amino acids: functions and effects of deficiency.
Nucleoproteins : structure and metabolism.
Metabolic rate and Basal metabolic rate
Factors influencing metabolic rate, principles of measurement.
Properties of the cardiac muscles and junctional tissues.Origin and spread of the cardiac impulse. Control of the pumping action of the heart. Cardiac cycle and accompanying changes. Mechanism of production of heart sounds, their location, characters and relationship with cardiac cycle. The normal electrocardiogram and characters of its various components. Significance of its parts, voltage and time calibration, principles of methods of recording, electrocardiographic leads and general information obtained from ECG. Electrocardiographic interpretation of abnormalities of rhythm, conduction andmyocardial damage and of ionic changes in body fluid.Normal heart rate and its regulation. Nutrition of the heart.Cardiac output, amount, distribution, measurement and control. Cardiac index and cardiac reserve. Assessment of functions of the cardiovascular system.
Laws of haemodynamics governing flow, pressure and resistance in blood vessels. Arterial blood pressure, measurement and regulation. Vasomotor system and control of blood vessels. Characters of arterial pulse andvenous pulse. Significance of central venous pressure.Structure and functions of the arteries, arterioles, capillaries and veins. Mechanism of haemorrhage and shock.Coronary, cutaneous, splanchnic and peripheral circulation.